THE MOVING CARTOON
Style, Transformation and Context
Following long-lasting reluctance among film scholars to accept animated film as a film form equal to others, recent research in film and media studies has shown a tendency towards reappraisal of the status of film animation in the history of moving images. The changing status of animation by scholars has been encouraged by new technologies for animation production which have emerged during the last twenty years. During the 1990s a variety of animation studies, from those more technically-oriented to highly theoretical ones, appeared. Several examples come to mind: Donald Crafton’s Emile Cohl, Caricature, and Film (1990), Giannalberto Bendazzi’s canonical work on animation history Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation (1994), Jane Pilling’s A Reader in Animation Studies (1997), Paul Wells’ Understanding Animation (1998) and Michael Barrier’s Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age (1999) etc. The trend continued in the first decade of the twenty-first century when film animation not only became recognised as a momentous and burgeoning sector of contemporary film production but some scholars such as Esther Leslie, Sean Cubitt, Lev Manovich and others have used animation to provide an alternative history of cinema that is not based on photographic indexicality. Consequently, there have been a number of histories of animation that explore and reappraise the form’s general development. The Moving Cartoon should be understood as an attempt to partake in the expansion in the field of cinema animation. The study relies on existing research and scholarship in the field of animation historiography as its context and foundation.
The main area of this study is film animation that is considered as a specific form of moving pictures. Just as in live-action, there are various genres, subgenres and types of animation depending on technique or content. However, there are basically two techniques of animation production: firstly stop-motion which involves three-dimensional elements such as puppets and ready-made objects brought to life in a continuous, physical space, and secondly two-dimensional drawn or painted animation which is manipulated in an imaginary space and its movement only made visible at the screening of the film. The moving cartoon is a subgenre of drawn animation which is based on the visual humour developed in caricature and cartoons. As paradoxical as it may seem, the whole form has for a long time been called cartoon. In contrast to this common misconception this study attempts to identify the moving cartoon as one particular type of drawn animation as well as provide a meaningful and understandable discourse of its historical development in the US and Europe.
One of the crucial points of this study is that the development of humoristic drawing from proto-caricature from the late middle ages until the modern cartoon appeared in daily press and periodicals of late nineteenth and early twentieth century, provided the conditions for the formation of the language and aesthetics of moving humoristic drawing. The study is concerned with drawn animation that is non-verbal and based on visual humour. The other forms of drawn animation, for instance animated fairy tales, that use verbal humour and dialogues which rely on a story-like narrative discourse are not the subject of this study. The intrinsic characteristics of the moving cartoon is the fact that it adapts the graphic language and the general visualisation of the captionless cartoon that expresses its message by connecting the known and recognisable visual elements in a way which defies commonsense and leads us to read and interpret the (cartoon) image through associations relating to its original form. Those incongruous pictorial combinations are made to move by use of the single-frame shooting technique. This kind of animated film appears itself as either satire or parody and reflects ways of thinking about the world in one particular society during one period of time. That is why the study also considers the connection between a moving cartoon and its socio-historical context.
Generally, the study is divided into two parts. In the first focus of this work, cinema animation is discussed alongside the moving cartoon as a special type of drawn animated film. The introductory chapter presents scholarship and research within animation studies, as well as definitions of the concepts used. The essence of animation is epitomized via analogies and divergences between it and live-action. There are significant differences between animation and live-action, the form of moving pictures based on photographic technology. Cinema animation is defined as a form of moving picture whose starting point is one film frame. The basic particularity that differentiates animation from other forms of moving pictures is its method of single-frame shooting that enables the creation of metamorphoses, penetration and incongruous compilations within a moving picture. Cinema animation mostly uses artificially created and previously conceived movement instead of transferring movement from nature.
Chapter 2 proposes the term “microshot” and “microediting” as a way of understanding animated film on the base of its elementary aspect. The starting point of animation and its fundamental constructive element is not the shot, as in live-action, but a single frame of film; film is exposed at a rate of twenty-four times a second. So, practically speaking, each animation second consists of twenty four cuts and the same number of shots. However, in practice, a microshot rarely corresponds to one frame. Except in parts of some animated films – where, when striving to create soft and natural movement, one drawing is required for each frame – it is quite common to shoot one static image for two, three, four or more frames. When it comes to the way microshot editing is used in animated film, there are two main categories: conventional and unconventional editing. In the first case, the microshot is used to create surrogates of film shots in such a way that a series of drawings (puppet, collages, etc) are made shot by shot with minimal modification enabling the process of projection to create the illusion of continual, natural movement. When microshots are used for the purpose of taking a significant step away from the conventions of live-action editing, we obtain some effects specific to film animation. One of the most typical of these is the sequence of metamorphoses on screen, or in other words the transition from one image into a completely different image in a continual and uninterrupted sequence. Another method, called penetration, enables the animator to reach inside and beyond one particular picture in the same uninterrupted take.
Starting with a discussion on the differences and similarities between the terms caricature and cartoon, chapter 3 provides a basic classification of caricature and cartoon types emphasising the specific subject of this study, the captionless cartoon based on pictorial incongruities. Caricature is defined as a representation of a specific person, such as a well-known politician or celebrity, while the cartoon exposes recognisable situations but with a generalized representation of humans. There are basically two forms of cartoons: one with captions, where the humorous point lies on the verbal level, and the captionless cartoon where the humour results from an incongruous relationship between the elements in the picture such as the transgression of physical laws or disruption of the patterns of our pictorial experience and behaviour provoked by these. In order to explain how the cartoonist is able to achieve the desired effect by connecting incongruous elements in his picture, the famous cartoon by the French cartoonist Chaval is analysed. Furthermore the chapter discusses the phenomenon of cartoon stylisation (the cartoon artist usually tries to put on display the essence of a phenomenon or a person, adapting the graphical expression and the entire visualisation to it, thereby revealing its deformations). In so doing, the interpretation of a cartoon is based on a pact between the cartoonist and the audience, on the active participation of the viewer-reader with a need for satirical perception of contemporary society. The imagining of basic elements and their placement in an incongruent relationship, contrast or conflict is the most specific common ground of visual humour used in cartoon films. Several examples are explored at the end of the chapter.
In order to situate the moving cartoon among animation types chapter 4 summarises some basic attempts at categorizing genres in animation. This study argues for a categorization based on aspects of animation technology where the moving cartoon is seen as a subgenre of drawn animation, which is one genre, along with stop-motion, direct method, pixilation and so on. This chapter also explains the historical context of the gag and cartoon from the earliest days of film, which directly and instantly assimilated cartoon expression (for example, in the form of the visual joke in silent film comedies). It is noted that the visual humour typical of the captionless cartoon appears in film forms other than animated films like live-action comedy, photography etc. The moving cartoon appears in two basic forms, the instant (spot) and the cumulative visual gag. In the case of the instant gag we have a film cartoon that would, theoretically, work when only one single frame of film is projected on the screen. In contrast to the instant gag – where a static cartoon becomes live owing to single-frame shooting, which gives it the impression of movement – the cumulative gag is driven by unpredictable, kinetic changes since it is enriched by the factors of duration, dramaturgy and timing. There are five basic forms of cumulative gags which are explained by way of hypothetical films founded on Chaval’s cartoon as well as being illustrated by numerous examples of cartoon films.
The second part of the study is composed of three sections and is concerned with the historical development of the moving cartoon in the US and European animated film. Generally, each section starts with a chapter that analyses the model established at the beginning of a certain period, for example the most salient features of the moving cartoon in silent film, sound film, and European animation in the period after World War II, and how incongruous pictorial compilations in movement or animation of the impossible triggered further development of those models. Chapter 5 attempts to prove one of the key purposes of the study i.e. that printed caricatures and cartoons were not only the foundation and foothold for other forms of humoristic drawing and comics, but also announced a new visual medium, cartoon film. Thus this chapter moves back in the prehistory of animated film. The birthplace of the modern cartoon was in British periodicals of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when cartoons became a modern form of public discourse, particularly in the graphics of William Hogarth, whose ideas (graphic stylisation and social satire) would lead his followers to establish the first national cartoon movement. The second phase was the great European school, developed in the first decades of the nineteenth century in France, its most prominent representative being Honoré Daumier. Cherishing social satire, Daumier enriched the vocabulary of the cartoon by creating symbolic figures, expressing abstract notions of war, peace, freedom, etc., while his political lithographs expanded the scope of humoristic expressionism to the study of human reactions expressed in pantomime. After Daumier, the cartoon developed through further simplification and generalisation, which would eventually result in the abstract line-figure. The fast development of the cartoon at the end of the nineteenth century brought innovations, among them the particularly important one of narrative cartoon, the comic. As early as the 1830s, the Swiss cartoonist Rodolph Töppfer linked sequences in a coherent narrative-graphic whole, creating the foundation of the comic strip. Another great pioneer among graphic storytellers was Gustave Doré, one of the greatest graphic masters who published several works that could be called comic books in the modern sense of the word. The biggest step in linking the humoristic sketch with movement was made by Wilhelm Busch, who perfected the early comic. Emile Cohl, who also started as a cartoonist, found a way to assimilate a whole set of aesthetic options that appeared during the centuries-long development of cartoon and comics in the printed media and adapt them to cinema, a new medium founded on the mechanical-optical illusion of movement. In his first film Fantasmagorie (1908) Cohl introduced the cartoon-style drawing – drawing reduced to its essence, condensed to a line with minimal indication of a background and the sequences of metamorphosis through which images quickly melted from moving lines to be decomposed and transformed into a completely different image.
The central focus of chapter 6 is the first comprehensive phase in the development of animated film - the period between the early 1910s and the early 1920s. During the same period the USA took the leading role in animated film production, which soon acquired all the features of industrial production. At the end of the nineteenth century, comics began to appear under very different conditions in American daily newspapers with international distribution. As early as the turn of the century, leading newspaper comic authors created their own language and comic strip conventions, partly taken from European models. The aesthetics of the comic strip was developing fast, in keeping up with the growing demands of production, so that after the first standard characters had been introduced, the medium was institutionalised as a special form of entertainment. The chapter analyses, for example, the development of rhetorical imagery in the comic strip (graphic signs for sound, textual clouds, action-marking lines, symbols and icons, mimes and gesticulations, etc.), which would find its application in early animated film. The animated film industry started to develop under the decisive influence of newspaper magnates so that early animated films were included in film programmes in much the same way as comic strips would appear in daily newspapers. Animated films were seen as animated newspaper comic strips, which meant that practically most of the successful comic strips had film debuts. This was obvious in the typical comic strip stylisation, characterised by two-dimensions, false perspective, schematic flattened space and a lack of background or drastic simplification, which was transferred to early animated films. The humour in these films was mostly slapstick, taken from silent burlesques with farcical chases. Editing functioned as simply the sum of the comic strip frame brought to life, where every scene equalled one shot, while the framing was built on the basis of a fixed viewing angle and the presentation of whole figures. The examples chosen for the analysis in the study, The Katzenjammer Kids and Krazy Kat, can be considered typical of the trend. The chapter also explores how early animators such as Winsor McCay and Raoul Barré by using the self-reflexive perspective managed to encourage the move away from the animated film being a simple analogy of the comic strip. Finally, the chapter analyses the work of the Swedish animator Victor Bergdahl, as the most interesting example of the animated comic strip in Europe at that time.
Chapter 7 examines animation from the end of World War I until the impact of audio technology in the late 1920s. During that decade a new concept of drawn animation appeared that spurred the further development of the moving cartoon. This concept included the idea that a cartoon character could be regarded as having its own will. What animators such as, and above all, the Fleischer brothers, and partners Sullivan and Messmer, were doing was creating a new understanding of animation and methods of humoristic effects outside the slapstick routine. The new trend that reigned until the emergence of sound film was marked by a more sophisticated humour based on incongruent pictorial elements in the image, metamorphoses and auto-reflexive games as well as the modernist demystification of film technique. An important role in this process was played by Margaret J. Winkler, a business woman from New York who distributed the Fleischers’ Out of the Inkwell, Felix the Cat by Sullivan and Messmer and Disney’s Alice Comedies, who significantly influenced the aesthetic concepts behinds those films. Instead of transferring and adapting the aesthetic of the comic strip to animated film, she suggested that her clients should make movies outside the narrative framework, as a group of loosely linked visual gags following each other, and also to combine photography with animated drawings. The most imaginative animated cartoons in the 1920s came out of the New York studio owned by the brothers Max and Dave Fleischer. Their first success was KoKo, an animated clown whose adventures started with him coming out of an ink bottle to which he would return at the end of each film. The relationship between the Fleischers and their characters was one of the cartoonist and his self-aware cartoon-figure, which can be exemplified by several episodes from the series such as Invisible Ink from 1921. However Felix the Cat arrived on the scene as the most successful animated series in the silent movie era that was based on this concept. Pat Sullivan and Otto Messmer were skillful storytellers who mastered visual language and all the expressive means of drawn pantomime. They also developed a certain form of metalanguage and auto irony, expressed through Felix's awareness that he is no more than a drop of black ink, a source of many gags illustrated by the analysis of several of the most famous episodes.
Chapter 8 discusses the fundamental characteristics of the aesthetics, humour and technology of Disney’s cartoon films, the most influential model of cinema animation. Disney was the first to break with the tradition of animation resulting from moving comics. The basic premise of his aesthetic system, the introduction of the method known in Disney’s studio as life-quality animation, i. e. the creation of believable characters that perform in believable environments, signified one of the biggest shifts in the history of animated cartoons. The concept of life-quality animation did not come to Disney at once; it was the result of a fifteen-year long process that had already started in his early works. Disney’s concept of realism was already present in the series Alice in Wonderland (started in 1924). Disney gradually discarded all the elements of comic-language, such as speech balloons, symbols, etc. In 1925 Disney created a new animated series Oswald the Rabbit, exploiting more Hollywood live-action conventions. Oswald cartoons featured an increased number of cuts, the camera simulated the movements used in feature films and several complex viewpoints were introduced, including the unusual (for animated cartoons) close-up and extreme close-up. The direction of movement became more sophisticated: instead of horizontal left-right movement, which was usually the only direction used in animation of the day, the camera started to move diagonally and in depth – towards and away from the viewing position. When it came to the narrative, the emphasis was put on logic and credibility. Soon after the emergence of sound, Disney started adapting the analogy of live-action to animation by essentially giving up metamorphosis as well as pictorial incongruities. From the late 1920s Disney’s films even began to respect the basic laws of physics. Studio features offered explanations for everything defying the laws of nature or physics. Instead of transformation, animators could endlessly exploit exaggeration. Bodies could change or deform, elongate or shorten, but none of the characters transformed into something else. The Disney’s animators also studied acting methods and the possibilities of applying them to cartoon characters. They redesigned characters, improving their plasticity and three-dimensionality, so that their bodies became more curved and softer. A strict line was set between living and non-living creatures etc. The Disney concept prompted a whole range of new techniques: live-action footage could be printed on the drawings so that movement would be faithfully animated; backgrounds became rich, elaborate pictures and a special technical idea called the Multiplane camera created the illusion of depth, etc. Two examples of pictorial incongruities in Disney’s sound films are examined, The Mad Doctor (1933), which features a lot of visual gags based on incongruities and metamorphosis, and The Band Concert (1935), in which they are drastically reduced in number.
After the 1930s, the development of most animation was linked to Disney, by either rejecting or accepting its aesthetic model, production methods and philosophy, and this was particularly true considering American animation. Chapter 9 analyses two of the principal alternatives to the hegemonic Disney style of early sound animation. For a long time the Fleischer brothers stood as Disney's most prominent rivals in the battle for domination over American and international markets. The Fleischers reigned until the 1940s, while the production consisted mostly of short films intended for an adult audience. The chapter considers the Fleischers’ so-called New York style of animation based on the premise that the essence of animation is to create what live-action footage cannot. In their bizarre, surreal comedies non-living objects often take on the role of living beings. As an attempt to illustrate the Fleischers’ construction of cartoon humour and gags, the chapter looks closely into several episodes of by far the most important of their creations, a series full of eroticism whose playful heroine has called Betty Boop. An even more original example of creative opposition to Disney was Tex Avery (1908-1980). During his career, first at Warner Studios and later at MGM, Avery functioned as an autonomous Disney-like negation of Disney, who parodied the Disney animation model through an incongruous cartoon film image and crazy humour. Avery drastically accelerates the rhythm of the animation and reduces the development of the gags. His animation style of visual gags was based on incongruities and the mutability of cinematic space. Parodying Disney, he abandoned the dogma about natural movement and spatial-temporal coherence, based on a stable background perspective and the harmonisation of audio and visual flow accompanied by the ideological and moral purity of the content. Avery Americanised the European motifs in Disney’s rural pastorals showing European culture through an American prism. The space in his animation is unstable, unpredictable and rubber-like, subdued by gravity only when necessary. In Avery’s world no one is very intelligent – everyone’s sort of crazy, and the fiercest diversion from Disney's idea of animation is in his characters’ awareness of the medium itself. His characters transgress the ‘fourth wall’, the one that separates them from our world; they communicate with the audience and often remind the viewer that they are nothing but a product of one crazy cartoonist. And finally, at every level (narrative, production, animation, etc.), Avery demystified the medium of animation, revealing the technique behind animated film. Beside his total disrespect for ‘realism’, Avery openly showed that his cartoon characters had sexual lives – what’s more, rich sexual lives – which was yet more subversion directed against Disney.
As an animator, who in the 1930s and 1940s was always a step ahead of his time, Avery in some of the films he made in the 1950s succeeded in partially opening the door and peering into the era of radical modern animation. Chapter 10 analyses the aesthetic rebellion against the Disney model based on minimalist cartoon style, geometrical stylization of form and so called limited animation. The chapter studies the influences behind the new trend, such as the cartoon tradition in The New Yorker and the modern design that advocated two-dimensional artistic presentation and rejection of the third dimension. What crucially contributed to that development was World War II and wartime propaganda cartoons. First Warner Brothers and then the other studios including Disney produced cartoons that rejected anthropomorphic subjects and directed their propaganda messages against the German and Japanese enemies portrayed as human caricatures. As a case study for war cartoons the chapter analyses several episodes of Snafu made by Chuck Jones and other animators, who decided to animate human characters in a stylised fashion and simpler animation with gags based on incongruities and metamorphosis. After the war the group of former Disney animators, Stephen Bosustow, Zachary Schwartz, and Dave Hilberman founded their own company pompously named United Production of America, or UPA. Later on, the group was joined by John Hubley. The essential innovation introduced by the UPA animators could be summarized in the following manner: instead of figures whose skeletons consisted of differently sized circles, they used all possible geometrical forms in accordance with contemporary graphic trends. UPA characters looked like geometrical shapes walking in a characteristic staccato rhythm against stylised backgrounds that sometimes were nothing more than a single detail on a white piece of paper. The chapter discusses some of the most typical UPA films like Rooty Toot Toot, Gerald McBoing Boing and the studios greatest commercial success, Mr. Magoo. UPA was also one of the first studios that successfully adapted to the new huge market for animation, television, which started a new era in the development of moving cartoons.
Chapter 11 attempts to analyse what is probably the first European aesthetic model in the field of the moving cartoon created by the Zagreb school in the 1950s. What was recognized as a school was a unique stylistic expression derived from newspaper cartoons, illustrations and comics, presenting the scenery of a flattened, two-dimensional space as well as the vision of the world as a panorama viewed through a critical comprehensive eye. The model was firstly created in the ideological domain, gradually being shaped into an aesthetic principle. The great international successes and the objective value of works from the Zagreb Studio from the late 1950s until the early 1980s were mostly founded on global metaphors, which satirically presented phenomena marking the Cold War – the arms race, the inequality of rich and poor, the neglect of the environment, and the alienation of modern man in growing urban jungles. In this respect, the films of the Zagreb school faithfully expressed their contemporaries’ fears and anxieties for the future. The chapter exemplifies this with a close look at four typical films of the Zagreb school: The Big Meeting (1951), which was a conjunction of socialist realism and the Disney aesthetic, introducing a kind of panoramic perception of the Eastern bloc. Concerto for Sub-Machine Gun (1958) caricatured a fictive America by parodying American genres, primarily gangster films, and the third Don Quixote (1962), which depicts a mechanical and dehumanised world marked by the loss of subjectivity and the violent erasure of cultural differences between people as an image of global civilization, while Diary (1974) was characterised as a cartoon of real America based on a graphic style borrowed from Saul Steinberg.
Chapter 12 looks more closely at the development of the moving cartoon in the former Soviet Union. The Zagreb films’ global metaphors were replaced by an approach that dealt with tangible problems in society. In his animated work Fyodor Khitruk announced the abandonment of global metaphors and panoramic views of society, in favour of shedding light on actual problems linked to the individual’s life in a specific socio-political context. Khitruk’s films such as The Story of a Crime, The Man in the Frame or Film, film, film worked as metaphors for the conflict between the common man and the rigid bureaucratic system. In order to provide a context for the emergence of this kind of moving cartoon, the first part of the chapter gives a historical overview of the development of cinema animation in the former Soviet Union. Cinema animation in general and drawn animation in particular developed as part of a huge propaganda machine aiming to set up the production of the Soviet type of cartoon made for propaganda purposes. The films produced during the 1920s tended to revolve around agit-prop posters, design, caricature and humorous graphics with propaganda content, some based upon Vladimir Mayakovsky’s drawings. The aim to industrialize the country also included animation which took the form of the Disney model combined with the socialist ideological message of Socialist Realism as a dogmatic framework. A number of war-propaganda cartoons were produced during World War II. In these films the Disney model and avant-garde traditions were combined. The struggle against formalism in Soviet art during the post war period resulted in the abandonment of Disneyism in favour of the didactic fairytale based on folkloristic motifs and political satire, which was influenced by the Soviet cartoons mainly published in the magazine Krokodil. What distinguished that Soviet studio was a lack of house-style and a great diversity at techniques, with puppet and cut-out films used as much as drawn animation. In all of these stages the Soviet moving cartoon was an element in the Potemkin village built by the gigantic propaganda machine whose task was to convince the population that they were living in the best of societies. The short time period of liberalization following Stalin’s death enabled Khitruk to make films that depicted the dark side oft the society. By using incongruous moving cartoons containing bitter satirical points, Khitruk offered a bleak representation of reality that reflected disbelief and hopelessness. Priit Pärn of Estonia, whose work is studied at the end of the chapter, went even further. The basic principles of Pärn’s approach to animation were the use of incongruous cartoon, the development of action in the picture and the expressive use of visual metaphors. Depicting the everyday life of four characters, Pärn created a dark and absurd image of the world in which the human being was merely an idea sketched in decrees and manifestos made by Soviet bureaucracy. Special consideration is given to Pärn’s 30-minute long cartoon film Breakfast on the Grass that emerged during the period of perestroika in the 1980s.
The study concludes in chapter 13 with an overview of British animation as the most distinctive representation of a further step in the development of the moving cartoon. It took shape as a way of participating in a debate dealing with a number of actual questions and problems. Since the 1970s Western animation in general, and Canadian and British animation in particular, has distinguished itself by dealing with troubling issues like unemployment, marital violence, the Holocaust, racial prejudice and so on. As a manifest example of that trend the chapter highlights the question of equality between the sexes that was raised in great numbers of animated films mainly made by female animators. Since the late 1970s many female animators entered the field of animation with highly original approaches and techniques combining graphic and natural visual elements, but also working within the genre defined here as the moving cartoon. In their work the female filmmakers often questioned woman’s position in society. In order to provide a background for such a discussion an overview of the long struggle of female animators for their position within the branch is presented, as well as the concept of documentary cartoon arising from a British tradition which redefines documentary form through its combination with animation. Special consideration is given the work of three well-established female cartoonists, Candy Guard, Alison de Vere and Joanna Quinn. By using minimalist drawn cartoons, Guard effectively succeeded in posing the question of what it means to be a woman in this day and age. She mocked the idea that a woman’s major function within society was as a consumer and the notion that a woman could be judged (and, most crucially, judge herself) on the basis of her physical appearance. Alison De Vere made several animated films that dealt with the female psyche using the language of cartoon to analyse her spiritual state and the way she perceived the world. Her film The Black Dog presents a poetic visualization of the circle of life expressed in a complex allegorical language of incongruous cartoons in movement. Joanna Quinn introduced a feminist approach to humour and sex in her films such as Girls Night Out and Body Beautiful (1990), satirizing men humiliating women in both popular culture and everyday life. In sharply humorous tales from her character Beryl’s life, Quinn simply swapped the gender roles in the erotic game. Men became objects whereas women, in this case Beryl herself, relished the male body, though perhaps in a somewhat singular way.
To conclude some general conclusions are drawn concerning the moving cartoon form. Because of the continuous development of the form depicted in this study, the way opens for further discussion of moving cartoons. The age of digitally produced and distributed animated images has caused an increasing number of various animated products with unprecedented impact on modern people’s daily enjoyment of pictures. Thanks to this wide-ranging technological advancement moving cartoons are produced today and dispersed on a massive scale and in this regard appear as an expression of the perception and philosophy of the contemporary age more than ever before.
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